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Everything You Need to Know About CBD Flower

CBD flower comes from Cannabis Sativa, just like marijuana. Unlike its intoxicating cousin, however, CBD does not have any notable psychoactive effects, which is why researchers have determined that this cannabinoid is non-intoxicating.

Most people either smoke or vape CBD flower, but you can also use CBD flower to make your own CBD edibles, oil or topicals, resin or hash and everything in between. Learn more about CBD Flower with our FAQs below!

CBD Flower vs Hemp Flower

In short: CBD flower comes from hemp, the non-intoxicating form of cannabis.

Learn more: CBD flower and hemp flower are the same thing. While not intoxicating, hemp produces flowers just like marijuana. Since the dominant cannabinoid in hemp is usually CBD, not THC, the flowers of the non-intoxicating hemp plant are often called “CBD flower.”

CBD Flower Terms You Should Know

  • Hemp flower: Is the same thing as CBD flower

  • CBD pre-rolls: Are CBD “joints” with less than 0.3% THC

  • Non-intoxicating: Indicates that CBD flower does not cause an intoxicating effect

  • Terpenes: Flavorful plant oils that are naturally expressed in cannabis

  • Flavonoids: Similar to terpenes, flavonoids have potent antioxidant effects

  • Manicured: Is a term used to refer to buds that are hand-trimmed and high-quality

  • Indica-dominant hemp: Contains terpenes that cause a soothing or relaxing effect

  • Sativa-dominant hemp: Has an energizing, uplifting effect

 

What is CBD Flower?

In short: The dried and cured flower of mature Cannabis Sativa plants containing less than 0.3% THC.

Learn more: CBD flower is dried and cured Cannabis Sativa flower that has been bred to be high in CBD and low in THC. Contrary to popular belief, hemp and marijuana are not different plants. Both substances are Cannabis Sativa, and the only difference is the dominant cannabinoid.

What Are Terpenes?

In short: Powerful aromatic compounds in cannabis flower that alter its effects and offer unique flavors and aromas.

Learn more: Cannabis contains lots of different types of plant oils. These natural oils can generally be classified as either cannabinoids, terpenes, or flavonoids. Cannabinoids are only found in cannabis, but terpenes and flavonoids are both found in lots of other plant species aside from hemp.

Terpenes have potent aromas that significantly impact the way you experience cannabis. While some terpenes don’t taste like they smell, every terpene has a flavor, and it’s even possible that the exact terpene ratio in hemp flower alters the way it affects your body.

 

CBD Flower Aromas

Let’s cover how various common terpenes found in CBD flower smell:

  • Caryophyllene: One of the most common terpenes in cannabis, caryophyllene smells woody, or like cloves.

  • Myrcene: This terpene is the main culprit responsible for the unmistakably “dank” smell of cannabis, and it’s also found in mangoes.

  • Limonene: Also found in citrus peels, limonene has a sharp, fruity aroma.

  • Pinene: This terpene smells distinctively piney, and it’s also found in pine trees.

  • Humulene: Found in many types of deciduous trees, humulene has a woody aroma.

  • Linalool: Also present in lavender, linalool has an iconic floral aroma.

  • Terpinolene: As the “mystery terpene,” terpinolene smells like many different things at once.

 

CBD Flower Flavors

Next, let’s take a look at how each of these terpenes tastes:

  • Caryophyllene: Spicier than you’d think, this terpene coats your throat with an almost peppermint-like sensation.

  • Myrcene: This terpene doesn’t taste much like anything aside from itself. Hints of mango and dankness abound.

  • Limonene: Limonene doesn’t taste as much like citrus juice as you’d expect. Instead, this terpene is relatively sweet.

  • Pinene: Thankfully, pinene doesn’t taste like pine sap. Instead, it tastes somewhat earthy or even minty.

  • Humulene: Humulene tastes earthy, but it also has a powerful hops undertone.

  • Linalool: Linalool has a light, crisp taste that resembles lavender ice cream.

  • Terpinolene: Some people say terpinolene has a fruity flavor, but others say it’s more floral or herbal.

 

CBD Flower Effects

In short: While CBD flower isn’t intoxicating, you might find its effects to be highly soothing and relaxing.

Learn more: Instead of activating the CB1 and CB2 receptors, the two neuroreceptors responsible for the “high” you experience when using cannabis, CBD appears to act at the non-intoxicating 5-HT1A and TRPV1 receptors. Does that sound like a bunch of scientific blah? Let’s clarify.

The human brain contains an endocannabinoid system involving a few endocannabinoids (body-made cannabinoids) like anandamide and cannabinoid neuroreceptors like CB1 and CB2. Phytocannabinoids (plant-made cannabinoids) affect the endocannabinoid system as well, but each phytocannabinoid is chemically different.

When intoxicating phytocannabinoids like THC activate your CB1 and CB2 receptors, they cause an intoxicating effect. Since CBD doesn’t interact with these receptors, however, it doesn’t get you high. The 5-HT1A receptor is part of your serotonergic system, which controls mood and heart rate. The TRPV1 receptor, on the other hand, deals mainly with inflammatory pain.

 

CBD Flower Benefits

In short: CBD flower absorbs into your system faster than any other product type, providing instantaneous effects.

Learn more: CBD flower is unlike any other type of CBD product. While the CBD in most hemp products must pass through your liver before it reaches the brain, smoking or vaping CBD flower releases this cannabinoid directly into your lungs, which are connected to your brain by large, fast-flowing blood vessels.

The effects of CBD flower last about 30-60 minutes, and they begin almost immediately after you take this non-intoxicating cannabinoid into your lungs. Since this ingestion method bypasses the liver, which reduces the effectiveness of CBD, the effects of CBD flower are often stronger than you might expect.

At the same time, however, CBD is non-intoxicating, so enjoying a potent dose of this hemp-derived substance won’t make you paranoid or confused. CBD might make you feel slightly tired, but other than that, your first experience with hemp flower should be altogether enjoyable and mild.

 

What is CBD Flower Good For?

In short: People primarily use CBD flower for stress, anxiety, depression, and similar conditions, but it’s also common to use hemp flower for pain and serious diseases. To combat workplace stress, people are even using CBD at work.

 Learn more: Since it appears to have powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective effects, scientists have looked at CBD as an effective treatment for a wide variety of conditions. Check out the “Conditions” page on the independent research site Project CBD for a full list of diseases and illnesses for which CBD has been researched as a treatment, but we’ll cover the basics below:

CBD originally became popular for its effects on epilepsy, and CBD flower might provide more immediate relief. These days, people from all walks of life use CBD for psychiatric conditions like anxiety and depression, and using CBD flower might stop negative emotional experiences before they become too much to bear.

Though it’s also been looked at as a treatment for heart disease, digestive conditions, and even cancer, the third most common medical application of CBD is pain. Since this cannabinoid operates at both the 5-HT1A and TRPV1 receptors, it’s possible that CBD could help with both types of pain: inflammatory and neuropathic.

 

CBD Flower Side Effects

In short: CBD does not have any major side effects.

Learn more: According to the latest research, CBD doesn’t have any common side effects, but this cannabinoid can interact with certain medications.

 

CBD Flower Without THC

In short: All CBD flower contains small amounts of THC. By law, CBD products must contain less than 0.3% THC.

Learn more: In Canada, Cannabis Sativa must contain less than 0.3% THC to be considered hemp. Cannabis with THC concentrations exceeding this amount is considered marijuana, but hemp with low THC has lots of benefits. It’s non-intoxicating, and the CBD in hemp delivers many of the same benefits as THC without the side effects.

 

Full-Spectrum CBD Flower

In short: CBD flower contains the full spectrum of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids found in cannabis.

Learn more: Full-spectrum CBD contains all the natural oils that express in the flowering buds of Cannabis Sativa. Other types of CBD, such as isolate and broad-spectrum, have been processed to remove some of the natural parts of this plant extract. CBD flower, however, is always full-spectrum.

 

Best Indica CBD Flower

In short: Just like marijuana, hemp flower can either be indica or sativa.

Learn more: It’s terpenes, not cannabinoids, that cause an either “indica” or “sativa” effect when you use cannabis. Whether the dominant cannabinoid is THC, CBD, CBG, CBN, or any other cannabinoid, therefore, indica and sativa traits will continue to express themselves. Indica-dominant CBD flower will help you relax without losing track of reality.

 

Organic CBD Flower

In short: CBD flower grown with organic methods is safer and of higher quality.

Learn more: Hemp is a bioaccumulator, which means that it accumulates toxins in the soil. Pesticides, fertilizers, and other common agricultural contaminants are unfortunately common in hemp products, but companies like ours that place a focus on organic, sustainable practices produce safer CBD.

Terpene Profiles

What Are Terpenes?

In short: Powerful aromatic compounds in cannabis flower that alter its effects and offer unique flavors and aromas.

Learn more: Cannabis contains lots of different types of plant oils. These natural oils can generally be classified as either cannabinoids, terpenes, or flavonoids. Cannabinoids are only found in cannabis, but terpenes and flavonoids are both found in lots of other plant species aside from hemp.

Terpenes have potent aromas that significantly impact the way you experience cannabis. While some terpenes don’t taste like they smell, every terpene has a flavor, and it’s even possible that the exact terpene ratio in hemp flower alters the way it affects your body.

See our list of terpenes below and their various properties and which of our Grown Here Farms organic varietals contain these valuable terpenes.

Myrcene

Dominant in: Umpqua, Rogue & Ambassador

Aroma described as musky, spicy, and peppery. Most abundant terpene present in cannabis.

Most common terpene found in hops, is also found in measurable quantities in mangoes as well as several common kitchen herbs such as lemongrass and thyme. Has been used in traditional folk medicine for its anti-anxiety and pain relieving properties. Myrcene is a monoterpene, which means that it has one of the simplest chemical structures of any aroma molecule. This also means it is a fundamental building block for other more complex terpenes. 

Myrcene has been used in folk medicine for centuries, with its first recorded use being in India over 2,000 years ago. In South and Central Asia, it's been used to treat various ailments for hundreds of years, including diarrhea, inflammation, respiratory problems, and cancer tumor growth. While there's no concrete scientific evidence to support these applications for Myrcene or other terpenes, it's worth noting that millions of people worldwide are staunch believers in its therapeutic properties and health benefits.

While the verdict is still out on the scientific validity of these claims, Myrcene has also been traditionally used to:

  • Improve sleep

  • Reduce pain

  • Promote relaxation

  • Relieve anxiety

  • Strengthen the immune system

In Brazilian folk medicine, lemongrass tea, which contains very high levels of Myrcene, has been used to reduce pain and relieve anxiety for centuries. Lemongrass tea is also drunk in Mexico to promote relaxation and improve sleep.

Germany, the country which produces the most hops in the world, uses Myrcene-rich hops in combination with valerian root in herbal sleep aid medicine.

Myrcene has also historically been used as a common component in herbal remedies. In Ayurvedic medicine, for instance, high doses of Myrcene were often used in conjunction with compounds from other herbs to create more potent remedies.

Pinene

Dominant in: Umpqua, Ambassador & present in Rogue

Strong evergreen flavour and aroma. Presence of pinene in cannabis varies considerably across cultivars, from undetectable to dominant, but even in rela­tively low quantities it is readily detectable.

Abundant in conifer trees (fir, pine), also found in common household herbs (rosemary, mint).  More commonly found in its α (alpha) form. Alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are simply two variations of pinene. The only difference between these two compounds is the base molecule’s particular class of chemicals (alkene).  Alpha-pinene is the more prevalent type; it occurs in cannabis and is the most abundant terpene found in nature.

Scientists have been studying the effects of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene for neurodegeneration-related health concerns.

Aside from delivering the distinct forest-like aroma, pinene has several therapeutic properties, including:

  • Anti-inflammatory Effects

  • Neurological Support

  • Antimicrobial Activity

 

Pinene has nootropic benefits by improving blood flow to the brain and blocking an enzyme known as acetylcholinesterase.  Herbs that are rich in pinene are often added to respiratory tonics.

 

Farnesene

Dominant in: Rogue & Ambassador

 

Sweet, woody, fruity bouquet, reminiscent of green apples. May refer to any of six closely related chemical compounds, relatively uncommon in cannabis. Found in several plant species, including certain fruits and common spices such as turmeric. Serves as a natural insect repellent in many plant species, including potatoes.  Farnesene, also known as Trans-β-farnesene, is a sesquiterpene considered soothing for the mood with calming and sedative effects.  It is the primary terpene found in green apple skin and is also found in sandalwood, cedarwood, patchouli, hops, ginger, turmeric, potatoes, gardenias, ylang-ylang, grapefruit, and myrrh.

Farnesene medical benefits include: 

  • muscle relaxant;

  • calming and sedative effects

  • anti-inflammatory

  • anti-fungal

  • antibacterial properties

 

Recent studies also suggest that this terpene might even help with tooth decay. 

 

Caryophyllene

Dominant in: Umpqua, Rogue & Ambassador

 

Described as having an aroma of wood, spicy, cinnamon, black pepper, and cloves. Present in most cannabis strains in varying quantities. Commonly found in many herbs and spices.  Only terpene present in the cannabis plant that interacts directly with the human body's endocannabinoid system, systematically the CB2 receptor. So it acts as a cannabinoid and binds to the CB2 receptors, and its effects have been studied extensively in medical research.  Caryophyllene is a bigger molecule than other terpenes and contains a cyclobutane ring in its molecular structure — this is rare in nature and not found in any other known cannabis-derived terpenes.  Caryophyllene’s unique molecular structure allows it to bind to endocannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 receptors) — providing many additional benefits most other terpenes can’t offer.

Caryophyllene binds successfully to CB2 receptors — the part of our endocannabinoid system that regulates the immune system.

Because of this unique ability, caryophyllene has been found to offer the following benefits: 

  • Supports the immune system

  • Promotes digestive health

  • May help alleviate chronic pain

  • May help reduce inflammation

  • Provides a gentle, soothing, relaxing effect

 

Limonene

Dominant in: Umpqua, Rogue & Ambassador

 

Citrus aroma and flavour. One of the most commonly occurring terpenes found in nature.  Second-most common terpene found in cannabis. Strains containing limonene often lean towards a sour flavour profile.  Limonene is considered an uplifting terpene capable of creating a sense of euphoria. This is likely because the terpene modulates neurotransmitters in the brain, particularly serotonin. One animal study found that lemon oil vapor, which contains significant levels of limonene, served to reduce stress and elevate mood.

Effects: 

  • Mood elevation

  • stress alleviation

  • antioxidant

  • antimicrobial

 

Humulene

Dominant in: Ambassador & present in Rogue

Earthy, woody, slightly spicy aroma, and flavour. Typically a complementary terpene, combining with more dominant terpenes to produce a cultivar's unique aroma and flavour.  Found in several plant species, but its greatest concentrations are present in cannabis and hops.

Often present when beta-caryophyllene and/or trans-caryophyllene are abundant. When present, plays a natural role in a cannabis plant's defense against pests and disease. Humulene, also known as alpha-caryophyllene, is an herbaceous terpene that is used in traditional Eastern medicine as well as modern biomedical research. It is found in many popular strains and is an essential element in forming the broad flavor and aromatic profile of cannabis. It is an “isomer” of beta caryophyllene. Isomers have the same molecular formula/number of atoms as each other but have a different chemical structure. That means humulene binds with the same receptors in our endocannabinoid system as BCP and thus shares many of its medicinal properties.

Humulene is a versatile terpene, but its most notable health benefits include:

  • Antibacterial

  • anti-inflammatory

  • antitumor effects

 

Unlike most strains, cannabis that contains a high level of humulene is also anorectic, so that it won’t produce such a pronounced appetite boost.

This compound has a long record of use in Chinese medicine for centuries due to its wide applications.

 

Health areas that could benefit from using humulene include:

  • Metabolism

  • Physical discomfort

  • Bacterial infections

 

Interestingly, humulene’s anti-inflammatory properties are so potent that they have been compared to the potential of the steroid dexamethasone, which is one of the WHO’s recommended medicines.

 

Bisabolol

Dominant in: Ambassador & present in Umpqua & Rogue

 

Bisabolol, also known as Levomenol or alpha-Bisabolol, is a sesquiterpene with a warm floral fragrance similar to honey, apples, and chamomiles. It has been used commercially in derma cosmetics for its effects, and it is found abundantly in chamomile (which contains up to 50% Bisabolol), Candeia Tree, and sage.  Bisabolol, or “levomenol,” is a terpene that is commonly used for its powerful soothing and relaxing properties. 

Key Points:

  • Calming

  • floral scent

  • stimulates gastrointestinal tract receptors resulting in smooth muscle relaxation

  • anti-inflammatory

 

Borneol

Dominant in: Umpqua & present in Rogue

 

Borneol also naturally occurs in ginger, rosemary, camphor, and thyme. The therapeutic benefits of borneol have been harnessed and utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The ancient Chinese particularly favored this invigorating terpene in  the treatment of respiratory illnesses such as coughs and colds. Borneol continues to be used today for diverse therapeutic applications as:

  • an analgesic

  • a digestive aid

  • to improve blood circulation; and

  • lower fevers

 

Scientists are now investigating many of the wide-ranging therapeutic applications of borneol, with research uncovering its anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anesthetic, and antioxidant properties. 

Ocimene

Present in Rogue & Ambassador

Subtle, sweet and herbaceous flavour profile, with citrus and wood notes. Concentrations vary considerably across cultivars, but it is rarely a dominant terpene. Found in several plant species, including common household herbs and certain flowers. Commonly used in the manufacturing of commercial fragrances.

 

Nerolidol

Present in Umpqua, Rogue & Ambassador

Sweet, floral flavour profile and aroma, reminiscent of fresh tree bark. Presents in measurable quantities in a limited number of cannabis strains. Found in many aromatic plants, including lemongrass and tea tree. Contributes to a cannabis plant's natural defense against disease.  Often used as a fragrance in the manufacturing of cosmetics and detergents.

Linalool

Dominant in: Umpqua, present in Rogue & Ambassador

 

Spicy, floral, slightly citrusy aroma, and flavour. Can also be found in certain fruits, and several species of plants, including lavender and coriander. Rarely among the top three terpenes found in any cannabis strain. As an aromatic Linalool can present rather strongly, even in relatively low concentrations. Has been used as an insecticide, as well as an additive in many cleaning and hygiene products.

 

Terpineol

Present in Umpqua & Ambassador

Aroma can present as fruity as well as woody. Found in many cannabis strains, often present in those having significant pinene concentrations. Considered more complementary in determining the bouquet of the cultivar, rather than dominant. Found in many plant species, including several fruits, flowers and many common household spices. Terpineol may refer to one of four terpene alcohols, each exhibiting a unique aroma and flavour profile. Common ingredient used in cosmetics manufacturing due to its pleasant aroma.

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